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THE FIRST AMERICAN GENERATION: DAVID SPENCE, 1639-1679

This article has been provided by it's author, Janie Keenum, who is a descendant of David Spence of Somerset County. Thanks, Janie, for sharing this fascinating information on one of the county's early residents.




David Spence is believed to have been born on April 5, 1639, in the town Dysart and the county of Fife on the eastern coast of Scotland. Lying below the Ochil Hills, Fife is a fat tongue of land extended eastward into the North Sea, bounded on the north by the Firth (or Bay) of Tay and on the south by the Firth of Forth. Scotlandís coast curves out both above and below Fife, offering protection from the harsh northern winds, so that Fife has the distinction of being the sunniest and driest part of the country. It is an area of sandy beaches, windswept cliffs, hills, and glens. The little fishing town of Dysart lies just east of Kirkcaldy on the northern bank of the Forth, across from but somewhat east of Edinburgh, and nearly midway between the ancient royal seat of Dumfermline and St. Andrews, once Scotlandís most powerful ecclesiastical center, now known more for golf than for its university, founded in 1411[1].

The family of Spens (or Spence, Spense) is of very high antiquity in Scotland, descended from a younger son of the Earl of Fife, and carried on its armorial bearing the lion rampant of the Clan MacDuff to denote descent from that ancient house[2]. The name was sometimes rendered as "de Spens", or "of the Spences". Both the Scottish "Spens" and the English "Spencer" carry the meaning of steward.

It is believed that David is descended from another David Spence, born 1538 in Wormiston, Fife, Scotland, who married Margaret Learmouth. David, Laird of Wormiston, who was an active supporter of the Marian cause, died on September 4, 1571 in the famous raid on Stirling Castle.

This was a time of great unrest in Scotland. Mary, Queen of Scots, had abdicated. Her half-brother, James, Earl of Moray, the first Regent appointed for her son, James, had been murdered in 1570. The second Regent, Matthew, fourth Earl of Lennox and father of the murdered Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley (Maryís late husband), was the focus of the raid on Stirling[3]. The attack was initially successful, and the Regent surrendered to Sir David, who promised to spare his life and took Lennox up behind him on the same horse. Suddenly, the defenders rallied, and Sir David attempted to flee the castle with his prisoner. As they fled, a Marian soldier shot Lennox in the back, mortally wounding him. The same bullet severely wounded Sir David, who was then killed by the Regentís rescuers even though the dying Regent begged that they spare him.

As the result of his participation in Lennoxís capture, Sir Davidís lands of Wormiston and Mairstoun, his tenements in Cupar and Kirk Wynd, Crail, and his office of Constable of Crail were formally awarded to Patrick, 6th Lord Lindsay of the Byres (Queen Mary's jailer). His widow, Margaret, could waste no time in mourning, and, according to the family history developed by Dr. Barbara Beall[4], quickly married a neighbor and Davidís kinsman, Sr. James Anstruther, who was highly regarded in court circles. His respectability may have led to James Spence (Davidís oldest son) being permitted to inherit his fatherís title in 1579.

The children of Sir David and Margaret were James, probably born around 1551, who married Agnes Durie and Margareta Forath; Lucretia, born in 1568 or 1569, who married Patrick Forbes, Archbishop of Aberdeen, and David, Jr., born August 28, 1571, just before his fatherís death.

Sir James entered the service of King Karl IX of Sweden and recruited Scottish mercenaries for the Swedish royal service. He became Count de Spens, and in December 1613 was appointed Swedish ambassador to Great Britain. James died in 1632.

David Jr. married a woman believed to have been named Janet Cunningham, and is thought to have had three children. Daughter Janet was christened 16 December 1614 in Dysart; Margaret, christened 21 December 1617 in Dysart; and John, born March 1612.

John Spence first married HelenMorris (born ca 1614), by whom he had 4 children: (1) Patrick, born ca 1633, whom Dr. Beall believes to have become the progenitor of the Westmoreland VA Spence families. (2) Margaret, born 5 November 1637 and christened 14 June 1638 in Dysart, who died young. (3) & (4) David and James, twins born 5 April 1639 and christened in Dysart 16 April 1639. Helen died in childbirth, as possibly did James.

John next married Anne Roe or Rowe at St. Oswaldís, Durham, England on 29 September 1639. Their seven children were twins Thomas & Susannah, Alexander, Margaret, Isobel, Janet, and John. Anne Rowe was the sister of John Rowe, who married Anne Inglis, emigrated to Northumberland Co., VA, and was the father of Anne Rowe who married Johnís son, the emigrant David.

Lastly, John married Martharet Guthrie in 1629, by whom he had twins Jeane & Henry.

David and his brothers were born at a critical time in Scottish history. To paraphrase J. D. Mackie, the long reign of James VI, heir to the Scottish throne through his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, and, more recently, to the English throne through Elizabeth I, had brought peace and prosperity to Scotland. But beneath the surface lurked a discontent based on longstanding religious grievances, which meant far more to the people of the early 17th century than we of the late 20th century can easily understand. Protestant factions in both England and Scotland greatly feared a resurgence of Catholicism in both religion and politics, a concern fueled by Jamesí long effort to bring not only the two Parliaments but also the Scottish church under the control of the Crown. By making innovations gradually, James had divided his opponents; following Jamesí death in 1625, his son Charles I united them all against the Crown.

By 1628-9, Charles had come to a complete breach with the English Parliament. By 1635, his hold on the Scottish Parliament and his attempts to force the Scottish church into patterns and practices of faith that, to them, "smacked of Popery", had alienated not only the nobles and religious leaders but the common people as well. They at last retaliated by drawing up a "National Covenant" which supported "the true religion, liberties, and laws of the kingdom" under His Majesty. By implication, the "Majesty" portion was negotiable, and as the "Covenanters" became bolder in their cries for a free Parliament, civil war became inevitable. The first tentative clash occurred in Berwick late in the spring of 1639, only months after Davidís birth.

Charles I fared poorly in his dealings with the English and Scottish reformers. The first actual battle of the Civil War was fought at Edgehill in 1642. Cromwell and his anti-royalist forces took Edinburgh in 1648, and on January 30, 1649, Charles I was beheaded. The Scots, still staunchly Presbyterian but by then thoroughly disillusioned with their English allies, immediately proclaimed King Charles II. The Cavaliers and Covenanters were now unlikely allies against Cromwellís England.

Battles raged around Edinburgh, where Cromwell captured 10,000 Scotsmen in 1650, and Dundee was sacked and its inhabitants massacred in 1651. Charles II became a fugitive, and Cromwell ruled the newly established Commonwealth. By 1655, Scotland was little more than an occupied province, heavily taxed and tightly controlled by Cromwellian troops. It was no wonder that Scotland greeted the restoration of Charles II in 1660 with undisguised joy[5].

David Spenceís family was to some extent involved in, and certainly affected by, these long years of civil unrest. John Spence seems to have shifted his family between Dysart, Scotland and Durham, England frequently, seeking refuge in Durham when the Presbyterians were in control of Scotland and returning to Dysart when the tide of war favored the Angelicans. It seems reasonable to believe that, having lived all their lives in the midst of war, members of the Spence family might have had little fear of the dangers inherent in removing to a new and unsettled country.

DAVID SPENCE, EMIGRANT

In his great study of Somerset County, Torrence speaks of David Spence as being a Scotsman. While we do not know the circumstances which led David Spence to leave his native land to become an "adventurer", or sponsor of colonists to Lord Baltimoreís new province of Maryland, he was one of only 62 such adventurers to be granted a "manor", or grant of 1000 acres or more. To secure the grant, he was required to transport twenty colonist (including himself) to the new land.

By such large grants, Lord Baltimore meant to create an American aristocracy along feudal lines, with each "Lord of the manor" having extensive judicial and social power over his tenants. By 1641, such powers were reserved for those granted 2,000 acres or more[6], so that David would never have been considered a "Lord". Still, a 1,000 acre grant implies a certain level of social standing (and influence) on the part of David, his family, or his family connections.

In the normal course of events, colonists taking up land grants first established proof of their presence in the new lands, including a specification of how they met the conditions for their patent. By 1662, these records were taken under oath and came to be called "Proofs of Rights". The colonist would then present a written "demand" to the colonyís officials for the land, which led to the issuance of a warrant directing the colonyís Surveyor to lay out the requisite amount of land. Only after this was accomplished would the colonist be issued a "patent", formally describing the land awarded and carrying the colonyís Great Seal[7].

David apparently landed in America sometime in late 1662, for on January 1, 1663, he appeared before William Thorne, one of the officials of Lord Calvertís new colony, to enter rights "in part to make good his Pattent for one thousand acres"[8]. He named eleven people (including himself): James and Ann Dashiell and their son, James Jr., Elizabeth Dashiell ( a niece, age 9[9]), George Doone, John Thomas, Joell Taylor, Robert Murdrake (or Muldrake), William Layton, and Isabell Egions (Evans?)[10]. No listing has been found of the remaining nine people David transported in order to secure his patent. A deed was drawn up on February 8, 1663[11], and a certificate of survey and patent were subsequently issued on September 8, 1663 for a 1000 acre tract of land which David named "Despence"[12], from the Scottish "de Spens", or "of the Spences".

While David may have been responsible for bringing some of the listed people from Scotland (or England) to Maryland, it appears that some, if not all, were already in America. James Dashiell is known to have emigrated from Yorkshire, England to Northumberland Co., VA in 1653[13], where in 1659 he married Ann Cannon, another Yorkshire immigrant. One presumes that Dashiell and David met in Virginia, but they could have been acquaintances from Scotland, as Dashiell was born in Edinburgh in 1634[14]. According to researcher Dr. Barbara Beall, they were "kinsmen", with Dashiell being first cousin to Davidís wife, Anne.

In the terminology of the records of the time, "immigrated" means that the individual furnished his/her own transportation to Maryland (or other province), while "trans-ported" means that someone else paid the individualís passage. The cost of passage from Scotland or England to Virginia would have been about £6, a substantial sum at that time. It is possible that David arrived in the colonies prior to January 1663 and simply gathered around himself a group of people already living in Virginia who wished to take advantage of the opportunities available in the newer colony of Maryland, and agreed to pay the lesser cost of transporting them, with their belongings and livestock, across the Chesapeake Bay.

This seems reasonable, as it appears that David did not immedately take up his Maryland plantation but first settled in the more-established Virginia colony, as evidenced by a deed showing that he purchased from George and Sarah Pickrin (Pickering) on April 8, 1664, a "parcell of land" situated on the southwest side, toward the head of the "Lower Machotanck Creek" in Northumberland County, VA[15].

Northumberland county was officially formed in 1648, although people had been settling there since 1642, and included all the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers. It lay the the east of Westmoreland county, and included some land initially incorporated as York county in 1642/3. It was known then, as it is now, as the "Northern Neck" of Virginia.

There were other Spences already settled in Virginia when David arrived. As Spence is not a common name, and appears infrequently in colonial records, it seems likely that the Patrick Spence referenced in Westmoreland Co., VA records on October 4, 1656[16] was kin to David (if not the brother postulated earlier), as was the William Spence referenced in the same records on June 2, 1656[17], and that in settling in Virginia, David was following in his familyís footsteps. (See Appendix A for further data on William, Patrick, Patrickís descendants, and other colonial Spence connections.)

By late 1665, David seems to have begun winding up his affairs in Virginia in anticipation of the move to Maryland. On October 28, 1665, he assigned his rights to an unspecified parcel of land, also in Northumberland county, to a John Graham[18]. While this could have been the land bought from George Pickrin, at least some of that acerage may have remained in Davidís possession, because a June 1714 land transaction references William Pickering (surely Georgeís son) and David Spence (surely David Jr.) as adjacent landowners[19].

On November 21, 1665, still in Northumberland, David gave a "heyfer calfe" to John Alexander, the young son of William Alexander[20]. According to Spence researcher Dr. Barbara Beall, there was a family connection between David and the Alexanders predating his arrival in America, with his half-sisters Margaret and Isobel (or "Bessie) marrying (respectively) John and James Alexander, of Dumfermline. A facsimile of this conveyance in Davidís handwriting can be found on page 3 of Pippengerís John Alexander, a Northern Neck Proprietor[21].

Sometime in the next twelve months, the move was accomplished. By November 26, 1666, David was sufficiently established in Maryland to record a cattle mark[22]. He was then about 27 years of age. As his first son was born less than 3 months later (on 25 January 1666), he appears to have married in Northumberland County some time before the move, presumably before April 1665. This is further substantiated by a second demand for Maryland land rights filed in March 1667 which indicates that he and "Anne, his wife" came there "out of Wiccomico in Virginia"[23].

Anne is believed to have been the daughter of John Roe (Rowe) and Anne Inglis, sister of Margaret Englis who was the mother of James Dashiell. John Rowe was born about 1611 in Durham, England, and died after 1653 in Northumberland County, VA. He was the son of Edward Roe, born ca 1580, South Shield, Durham, England, andElizabeth Pattison, born ca 1584 in the same location.[24] If Dr. Beall is correct, David and Anne were step-cousins, with Anne being the niece of Davidís stepmother, Anne Rowe (his fatherís second wife) and thus would have known each other from childhood, as well as in Northumberland County VA as adults.

Davidís 1000 acres were situated on the south side of the "Wiccocomoco", or Wicomico,

River, just below the mouth of Wicomico Creek and near the present-day town of Mt. Vernon. Today, the Reading (or Redden) Ferry road runs through the original grant[25]. Like two other rivers of the same name in Virginia, the Maryland Wicomico was named for a tribe of Indians native to the area. It was a fertile territory consisting of thousands upon thousands of acres of wonderful forests and rich, level fields with great, deep streams winding westward to the Bay[26].

He was not the first settler on this section of the Wicomico. Thomas Manning had taken up his 800 acre patent, "Manningís Resolution", along the Great Monye Creek in 1662. A year later, Nehemiah and Ann Covington established themselves on their 300 acre plantation, "Covingtonís Vinyard", along Manningís western line. And in 1664, William Thomas "of Virginia", patented "The Lott", another 1,000 acre plantation some half mile to the east, along the Wicomico. In Ann Covington, Anne Spence would have had from the beginning at least one female neighbor of her own social standing. And in 1669, a second female neighbor arrived in the person of Winifred Thorne, wife of Captain William Thorne, whose 300 acre plantation "Taunton Deane" touched "Despenceís" southeastern corner[27].

It is worthwhile to note that Lord Baltimore required each patentholder to choose a name for their patent, which was duly incorporated into its legal description. A perusal of the names chosen by early Wicomico settlers . . . "Mannings Resolution", "Flower Field", "Last Purchase", "Covingtonís Folly", "Carnys Chance", "Neglect", and "Rectified Mistake"[28]Övividly illustrates their hopes, fears, and wry sense of humor.

David and Anne, along with their neighbors, most probably dressed like the English colonists of Virginia. At home and while working, he would have worn a linen shirt and woolen breeches over knit hose, and over that for more formal occasions a long vest and jacket of satin, velvet, or wool with a fancy cravat of linen and lace. While wigs were an indespensible part of a gentlemanís daily attire, fashionable European visitors were often scandalized by the colonistsí predeliction for "wearing their own hair" . . . that is, going wigless, doubtless due to the temperature differential between the cool British isles and the warm and humid Americas.

Anne would have had a least one velvet or silk gown worn over a quilted underskirt and finely embroidered chemise, but for everyday would have worn a muslin blouse under a woolen bodice and skirt, with an apron over all for protection. Both would have had long warm capes for bad weather and would have worn low, buckled leather shoes outdoors and soft leather slippers inside (although many people went barefoot except for formal occasions). The children of this time were treated, in many ways, as miniature adults and accordingly would have worn miniature replicas of their parentsí clothes[29].

Lord Baltimore wasted no time in establishing a government for his new county. A "Sheriffe" was immediately appointed, as was a military commander, and James Dashiell, Davidís friend and neighbor, was appointed one of five surveyors charged with laying out a highway to serve the county. In January 1667, the court laid out the five initial districts, designated as "hundreds", into which the county would be divided. On June 30, 1668, David was sworn in as Constable for Wiccocomoco Hundred[30].

On that same date, David conveyed half (500 acres) of his original grant to James Dashiell[31]. While the actual circumstances are lost in time, it seems reasonable to speculate that this was done on the basis of some prior agreement between the two friends, who may have pooled their influence, funds, or other resources to secure the original grant. It is interesting to note that Dashiell sold the 500 acres less than three years later (8 Nov 1670) to Thomas Rowe (or Roe), believed to be Davidís brother-in-law. Rowe later patented a 200 acre parcel adjoining Despence which he named "Hereafter", and assigned to Davidís sons John and James.

Although Somerset, like much of Scotland, was an ultra-Protestant county, David was a "Churchman", or adherent to the Church of England, as was his neighbor, James Dashiell[32]. As Torrance notes, there is every indication that the "churchmanship" of the C of E people in Somerset in those early days was of a liberal, tolerant type. It has been described as "absolutely loyal in principle, yet marked by the absence of any sence of bigotry[33]. This may offer an insight into Davidís character, and also into his decision to leave a country decimated by a war fueled by religious strife for a freer land.

It is assumed that David prospered in his new country. He was not as active in the countyís civic activities as some of his peers, and may instead have concentrated his efforts on establishing his home and family. A son, David Jr., was born January 25, 1666; a second son, Alexander, on September 13, 1669; a third son, John, on April 11, 1672; a fourth son, James, on January 25, 1674; and, finally, a daughter on October 30, 1677, named Ann after her mother[34].

A third demand for land rights was filed by David alone in December 1677[35]. The purpose of the 1667 and 1677 demands is unclear, as no record has been found to link them to specific grants. However, on March 17, 1673, David did patent a further 250 acres which he named "Spenceís Choice"[36], on the north side of the "Cuttymortyes River" in Somerset. The exact location of this patent has not yet been determined.

The home that David and Anne built on their patent was probably small. As A. S. Barnes states in his work on early Maryland houses, "Marylandís early homes were patterned after contemporary English farm homes . . . Even the largest manor and plantation homes of the 1600ís were small and unpretentious, the accent being on making a living from tobacco and grain, rather than trying to live grandly . . . A house of only two rooms divided by a hall was first-rate for the day."[37] A kitchen, smoke house, and barn were among the "dependancies" which would have been erected close to the main house (but not attached, for fear of fire).

The siting of the early plantations along riverways was not only for ease of transportation, but for the clay to be found in their banks. This clay was molded and fired on site to make the bricks used in these early homes. Some were entirely of brick, with walls that were not only thick, but intricately patterened. Others had only their end walls of brick, incorporating the massive chimneys that were the sole source of heat for the dwelling. Floors were of wood, or slate, or brick. While windows were few and small, those in the homes of prosperous landowners would have been small panes of glass set in wooden frames.

"Make Peace", built immediately after 1663, is a good example of these early dwellings. Overall, the main house measured 46í by 22í2", with 10í4" ceilings and walls well over a foot thick[38]. Construction was of brick with end walls containing not only massive chimneys, but closets as well. Bed chambers would have been tucked beneath the steeply sloped roof.

On September 8, 1674, David served on a jury convened in the "Sommersett" County Court under seven justices, one of whom was Davidís old friend, James Dashiell. The jury found George Johnson not guilty with respect to the demise of a "strange Cowe" belonging to Randall Revell which broke into Johnsonís "cornnefeilld"[39]. The next day (September 9), David himself came before the court as a defendant in the case of Isaack Hudson v. David Spence. Hudson alleged that he had indentured himself to David for one year beginning September 1, 1673 in consideration of 1,000 pounds of tobacco, but that David had denied him payment. The contract, produced by Davidís lawyer, William Tompson, provided for a seven year apprenticeship, during which David was to give Hudson a red yearling heifer called Skeet, with her future increase, and to find and allow to Isaack sufficient meat, drink, washing and lodging, and also "convenient" clothing and other needs fit for a servant, and to allow him the freedom of every Saturday afternoon, Sundays and holidays. The court found Isaack to have no cause of complaint and ordered him to perform the contract for the remaining term[40].

Davidís occupation was listed in many of these documents as a "planter", a term used for those farmers of considerable acreage who grew mainly tobacco, a crop so important that it was the currency of expediency for that time and place. At its October-November 1678 session, the Maryland General Assembly passed an act directing the payment of tobacco to numerous men, including 102 pounds to David Spence, as reimbursement for "Tobacco expended layd out & disbursed by severall of the Inhabitants of this Province in the late Expedicon against the Nanticoke Indians . . ."[41].

Nothing more is found in the records until Davidís will, written March 29, 1678, is probated in August 1679[42], dividing his land among his sons and making his wife his sole executor. The division was somewhat unusual in that, while he did leave land to his two older sons (the 250 acre plantation named "Spenceís Choice), the main plantation ("Despence") was left to the two younger boys, then ages 7 and 5. To his wife, Ann, he left the majority of the livestock and all the "goods, chattels & substance & all belonging thereto both without doores & within". This appears to be a deliberate move to ensure that Ann would be able to remain in their home for at least the 10-12 years it would take for the younger boys to reach their majority. As ownership of the "goods & chattels" was permanent, rather than limited to her widowhood, it would also establish a substantial "dowry" for the widow Spence should she be inclined to remarry at some later date. In fact, there is persuasive evidence that Ann remained in control of the main plantation until her death, as the two younger sons removed to North Carolina around 1697, but the plantation was not sold until 1710. She would have been around 70 years of age at that date, an advanced age for the time.

Davidís will also contained a small bequest to a servant maid named "Sofuoea" (Sophia), but it is the provisions he made for the "nurting and educaeon" of his little daughter Ann that solidify the picture of a good man, devoted to his church and attempting to do his best to secure the future well-being of his wife and their children. David died at age 39 or 40, presumably from illness, sometime between the late spring of 1678, when he made his will, and mid-summer, 1679, when his will was probated[43]. Today, forty is barely middle-aged, but history tells us that three hundred years ago, few people reached their fiftieth birthday. Still, it must have been hard, dying in a raw, new land so far from from his birthplace. Perhaps that is why Davidís "mark", drawn in place of the signature he was apparently too weak to inscribe, looks much like a shield, perhaps recalling family ties he knew as a child in Scotland.


[1] Fodorís Scotland, 1998, pp. 144-155

[2] John Wayland, 1930: Virginia Valley Records: "The Spence Family", p 366

[3] J. D. Mackie, 1964: A History of Scotland, pp. 164-167

[4] Barbara Beall, "Twigs of Inman-Spence" Part I, Section 1, <http://twigs-of-inman-spence.rootsweb.com/ChapterThree.html>, downloaded 9/6/99, pp 1-11

[5] J. D. Mackie, 1964: A History of Scotland, pp. 187-231

[6] Forman, H.C., 1982: Early Manors & Plantation Houses of MD, pp 22

[7] Hartsoosk & Skordas, 1946: Land Office & Prerogative Court Records of Colonial MD, Vol 4

[8] Maryland Hall of Records: Land Office Index 1663, #6, Liber 149

[9] Dashiell, Benjamin J., 1928: Dashiell Family Records, p. 19

[10] Ibid., p. 22

[11] Ibid., p. 23

[12] Maryland Hall of Records: Land Office (Patents) 6, pp. 148-150

[13] Dashiell, Benjamin J., 1928: Dashiell Family Records, p. 19

[14] Ibid.

[15] Sparacio, Ruth, 1993: Deed & Will Abstracts of Northumberland Co, VA 1662-1666, p. 129(53)

[16] Fleet, Beverly, 1945: Westmoreland Co., 1653-1657, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Vol 23, p. 56

[17] Ibid., p. 49

[18] Sparacio, Ruth, 1993: Deed & Will Abstracts of Northumberland Co. VA 1662-1666, p.169

[19] Gray, G. E. 1987: Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants, Vol 1, 1694-1742 (Book 5, 1713-1719)

[20] Sparacio, Ruth, 1993: Deed & Will Abstracts of Northumberland Co. VA 1662-1666, p. 175

[21] Pippenger, W. E., 1990: John Alexander, a Northern Neck Proprietor, pp. 2-3

[22] Powell, Jody, 1991: Somerset Co. MD Livestock Marks 1665-1772, p. 10

[23] Maryland Hall of Records: Land Office (Patents) 11, p. 499

[24] Barbara Beall, "Twigs of Inman-Spence", Part 1, Section 2, <http://twigs-of-inman-spence.rootsweb.com/ChapterThree.html> downloaded 9/6/99, p 1-4

[25] Delorme, 1998: Maryland Delaware Atlas & Gazetteer, p 33

[26] Torrence, C., 1936: Old Somerset on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, p 9

[27] Dryden, Ruth, 198?: Land Records of Somerset Co., MD, p 487 (redrawn by JSK)

[28] Dryden, Ruth, 198?: Land Records of Somerset Co., MD, pp 487-488

[29] Wilcox, Ruth T., 1963: Five Centuries of American Costume, p 110-111

[30] Torrence, C., 1936: Old Somerset on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, p. 74-75

[31] Dashiell, Benjamin, 1928: Dashiell Family Records, p. 23

[32] Torrence, C., 1935: Old Somerset on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, p. 131

[33] Ibid., p. 134

[34] Maryland Hall of Records: Somerset Co. MD Land Records, IKL, pp. 241, 243, 245

[35] Maryland Hall of Records: Land Office (Patents) 15, pp. 449

[36] Dryden, Ruth, 1981: Calvert Papers, Rent Rolls of Somerset Co. MD 1663-1723, p. 15

[37] Wilson, E. B., 1965: Marylandís Colonial Mansions and Other Early Houses, pp 16-18

[38] Forman, Henry C., 1982: Early Manor and Plantation Houses of Maryland, p 149

[39] Lankford, Wilmer, 1992: Court Records of Somerset Co. MD, pp. 59-60

[40] Ibid., pp. 63-65

[41] Browne, W. H., 1889: Archives of Maryland, Proceedings & Acts of the General Assembly of

Maryland, October 1678-November 1683, pp. 87, 98

[42] Maryland Hall of Records: Will of David Spence, 1679

[43] Cotton, Jane Baldwin, 1901: Maryland Calendar of Wills, Vol 1, p. 216


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